ls lists files and directories.
If the pathname is a file, ls displays
information on the file according to the requested options.
If the pathname is a directory, ls
displays information on the files and subdirectories therein.
You may obtain information on a directory itself using the
If you do not specify any options, ls displays only
the file name(s).
When ls sends output to a pipe or a file, it writes one
name per line; when it sends output to the terminal, it uses the
lists all entries including those starting with periods (.), but excluding any . or .. entries.
lists all entries including those starting with a period (.).
displays non-printable characters as octal bytes with the form \ooo.
puts output into columns, sorted vertically; this is the default output format to the terminal.
uses the creation time of the file for sorting (
-t) or displaying ( -l). -d
does not display the contents of named directories, but show information on the directories themselves.
puts a / after each directory name, a * after every executable file, a | after every FIFO file, a @ after every symbolic link and a = after every socket.
Windows systems do not support FIFO files or sockets (as files) and consider all files that are not directories or symbolic links to be executable files. This option of the ls utility labels the files and directories display accordingly.
-aoption and disables the -C, -g, -l, -n, -o, -r, -s, and -toptions. For each argument that is a directory, all directory entries are listed in the same order they are retrieved from the system (POSIX-compliant and UNIX systems only). -g
displays only the group ID numbers (on Windows NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista/7/2008/8/2012, POSIX-compliant and UNIX systems).
displays file sizes using more human-friendly units. Units used are:
B Bytes KB Kilobytes MB Megabytes GB Gigabytes TB Terabytes PB Petabytes EB Exabytes
When this option is specified, each file size is displayed using the most appropriate unit and is rounded to two decimal places.
displays inode numbers along with file names (only on systems that support inode numbers, such as POSIX-compliant and UNIX systems).
displays size in kilobytes instead of blocks when specified with the
-soption. If the -soption is not specified, this option has no effect. -L
follows symbolic links.
Symbolic links are only available on Windows 2000/XP/2003/Vista/7/2008/8/2012 systems with the NTFS file system.
displays permissions, links, owner, group, size, time, name; see Long Output Format.
displays names in single line, with commas separating names.
displays user ID and group IDs as numbers instead of names.
displays only the user ID of owner (POSIX-compliant and UNIX systems only).
puts / after directory names.
displays non-printable characters as ?.
lists subdirectories recursively.
sorts in reverse of usual order; you can combine this with other options that sort the list.
displays size in blocks (after the inode number, but before other information). If the
-koption is also specified, the size is displayed in kilobytes instead. -t
sorts entries by time. By default, this option sorts the output by the modification times of files. You can change this with the
-cand -uoptions. -timeoutseconds
specifies the number of seconds that ls has to complete the operation before timing out and issuing an error. seconds is given in seconds.
uses the last access time for sorting (
-t) or displaying ( -l). -Xattr
displays extended security attributes under Windows. This option turns on the
-l(long listing) option. The attr argument is a string containing some of these characters: Character Meaning A file attributes in verbose format a file attributes in terse format D verbose file Discretionary Access Control Entries (Windows NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista/7/2008/8/2012 only) d terse file Discretionary Access Control Entries (Windows NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista/7/2008/8/2012 only)
Aand aor both Dand dare in attr, ls uses the last one given on the command line. See Extended Attribute Descriptions. -x
puts output into columns sorted across the rows.
forces single column output.
When you specify options that are mutually exclusive (for example,
-cand -u), the option that appears last on the command line is used.
The output from ls
-rw-rw-rw- 1 root dir 104 Dec 25 19:32 file
The first character identifies the file type:
- Regular file b Block special file c Character special file d Directory l Symbolic link n Network file p FIFO s Socket
The next nine characters are in three groups of three; they describe the permissions on the file. The first group of three describes owner permissions; the second describes group permissions; the third describes other (or world) permissions. Because Windows systems do not support group and other permissions, these are copies of the owner's permissions. Characters that may appear are:
r Permission to read file w Permission to write to file x Permission to execute file a Archive bit is on (file has not been backed up) c Compressed file s System file h Hidden file t Temporary file
On Windows systems, most of the permissions shown are artificial, with no real meaning. The w bit is set according to the ReadOnly attribute, and the rx bits are always set on.
You can change some permissions with the chmod command.
After the permissions comes the number of links to the file.
Next comes the name of the owner of the file or directory. On file systems that don't support Windows NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista/7/2008/8/2012 security, the owner name cannot be determined and the owner ID number is displayed instead. Under Windows NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista/7/2008/8/2012 the name of the owner of a file is displayed if the file's SIDs can be obtained and if these SIDs have an associated name in the SAM database. If the file has a SID associated with it, but the name of the SID cannot be determined, then the value of the SID is displayed. (This can happen when the current user is not in the domain that was used when the file was created.) If the file does not have a SID (for example, if it is on a non-NTFS file system), or if the file security information cannot be accessed because the file is locked by another process, then the user name appears as <unavail>.
When a listed file is owned by the local computer, the owner is displayed as computer_name\ where computer_name is the name of the local computer.
Then comes the name of the group that owns the file or directory. On Windows systems, the same rules are followed for the group name as for the owner name.
Following this is the size of the file, expressed in bytes.
After this comes a date and time.
For a file, this is the time that the file was last changed; for
a directory, it is the time that the directory was created.
The last item on the line is the name of the file or directory.
On Windows NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista/7/2008/8/2012 systems, ls supports the
For ls -X A or ls -X a, the display format is:
where attributelist is a comma-separated list of one or more of:
For ls -X D or ls -X d, the display format is:
ACE: perm usergrpname ace_flags accessmode
is one of Allow or Deny.
is the user or group name as taken from the Windows NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista/7/2008/8/2012 Security Access Manager registry. Any spaces embedded in the name are replaced by + characters.
is a comma-separated list of the flags for Discretionary Access Control Entities:
Verbose Terse ContainerInheritAce CIA FailedAccessAceFlag FAAF InheritOnlyAce IOA NoPropagateInheritAce NPIA ObjectInheritAce OIA SuccessAccessAceFlag SAAF
If no flags are set, ls displays a single -. ACE stands for Access Control Entry; for more information, see your Windows NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista/7/2008/8/2012 system documentation.
is the set of access permissions (if Allow is displayed) or restrictions (if Deny is displayed) for this ACE. These can be any or none of the following:
Verbose Terse Note Read R Read file data or list directory entries Write W Write file data or create new file in directory eXecute X Execute a file or traverse a directory Append A Append data to a file or add subdirectory DeleteChild DC For a directory, delete entries in directory ReadEa RE Read extended attributes WriteEa WE Write extended attributes ReadAttr RA Read attributes WriteAttr WA Write attributes Delete D Delete access ReadControl RC Read access to the owner, group, and discretionary access control list (ACL) of the security descriptor WriteDac WD Write access to the owner, group, and discretionary access control list (ACL) of the security descriptor takeOwnership O Write access to the owner Synchronize S Synchronize access
contains the terminal width in columns. ls uses this value to determine the number of output columns to write using the
MKS Toolkit supports hard links under Windows NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista/7/2008/8/2012 on NTFS file systems. There is a slight loss of performance for this support. If you do not require hard link support, you should set and export the environment variable TK_NTLINKS_OFF to disable this support.
MKS Toolkit supports Windows NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista/7/2008/8/2012 security information on NTFS file systems. There is a slight loss of performance for this support. If you do not require any security information, you should set and export the environment variable TK_NTSECURITYINFO_OFF to disable this feature.
Under Windows NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista/7/2008/8/2012, files having an associated SID, whose name cannot be determined, display the value of the SID instead. SID values are usually very large. You should set and export the TK_NTSECURITYINFO_SID_TERSE which causes all SID values to be shortened by replacing all the subauthority values, except the last one, with the string -...-.
When set, this environment variable causes months and days of the week to be displayed as defined in the current locale. By default, MKS Toolkit utilities display months and days of the week in English.
contains the time zone to be used when displaying date and time strings. On Windows NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista/7/2008/8/2012, MKS Toolkit uses the built-in timezone support, and you should not set the TZ environment variable.
Possible exit status values are:
Failure due to any of the following:
Failure due to an invalid command line option.
- File or directory "name" is not found
The requested file or directory does not exist.
- Cannot allocate memory for sorting
To sort its output, ls needs to allocate memory; this message says that there was not enough memory for the sorting operation.
- Too many directory entries in "dir"
This message only appears when ls runs out of dynamically allocated memory.
POSIX.2. x/OPEN Portability Guide 4.0. All UNIX systems. Windows 2000. Windows XP. Windows Server 2003. Windows Vista. Windows 7. Windows Server 2008. Windows 8. Windows Server 2012.
On Windows systems, ls treats files and directories marked with the hidden attribute like POSIX and UNIX file names beginning with . (period).
MKS Toolkit for Power Users
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MKS Toolkit 9.5 Documentation Build 3.