terminfo

terminal capability data base 

Curses Miscellaneous


SYNOPSIS

$ROOTDIR/usr/lib/terminfo/*/*


DESCRIPTION

terminfo is a data base describing terminals, used by screen-oriented programs such as nvi, rogue and libraries such as curses. terminfo describes terminals by giving a set of capabilities which they have, by specifying how to perform screen operations, and by specifying padding requirements and initialization sequences.

Entries in terminfo consist of a sequence of , separated fields (embedded commas may be escaped with a backslash or notated as \072). White space after the , separator is ignored. The first entry for each terminal gives the names which are known for the terminal, separated by | characters. The first name given is the most common abbreviation for the terminal, the last name given should be a long name fully identifying the terminal, and all others are understood as synonyms for the terminal name. All names but the last should be in lower case and contain no blanks; the last name may well contain upper case and blanks for readability.

Terminal names (except for the last, verbose entry) should be chosen using the following conventions. The particular piece of hardware making up the terminal should have a root name, thus hp2621. This name should not contain hyphens. Modes that the hardware can be in, or user preferences, should be indicated by appending a hyphen and a mode suffix. Thus, a vt100 in 132 column mode would be vt100-w. The following suffixes should be used where possible:

      Suffix   Meaning                                  Example
      -----------------------------------------------------------
      -nn      Number of lines on the screen            aaa-60
      -np      Number of pages of memory                c100-4p
      -am      With automargins (usually the default)   vt100-am
      -m       Mono mode; suppress color                ansi-m
      -mc      Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting   wy30-mc
      -na      No arrow keys (leave them in local)      c100-na
      -nam     Without automatic margins                vt100-nam
      -nl      No status line                           att4415-nl
      -ns      No status line                           hp2626-ns
      -rv      Reverse video                            c100-rv
      -s       Enable status line                       vt100-s
      -vb      Use visible bell instead of beep         wy370-vb
      -w       Wide mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)    vt100-w

For more on terminal naming conventions, see the term manual page.

Capabilities

The following is a complete table of the capabilities included in a terminfo description block and available to terminfo-using code. In each line of the table,

The variable is the name by which the programmer (at the terminfo level) accesses the capability.

The capname() is the short name used in the text of the database, and is used by a person updating the database. Whenever possible, capnames are chosen to be the same as or similar to the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard (now superseded by ECMA-48, which uses identical or very similar names). Semantics are also intended to match those of the specification.

The termcap code is the old termcap capability name (some capabilities are new, and have names which termcap did not originate).

Capability names have no hard length limit, but an informal limit of 5 characters has been adopted to keep them short and to allow the tabs in the source file Caps to line up nicely.

Finally, the description field attempts to convey the semantics of the capability. You may find some codes in the description field:

(P)      indicates that padding may be specified

#[1-9]   in the description field indicates that the string
         is passed through tparm with parms as given (#i).

(P*)     indicates that padding may vary in proportion to
         the number of lines affected

(#i)     indicates the ith parameter.

These are the boolean capabilities:

               Variable          Cap- TCap    Description
	       Booleans          name Code
       ------------------------------------------------------------
       auto_left_margin          bw    bw    cub1 wraps from column
                                             0 to last column
       auto_right_margin         am    am    terminal has automatic
                                             margins
       no_esc_ctlc               xsb   xb    beehive (f1=escape,
                                             f2=ctrl C)
       ceol_standout_glitch      xhp   xs    standout not erased
                                             by overwriting (hp)
       eat_newline_glitch        xenl  xn    newline ignored
                                             after 80 cols (concept)
       erase_overstrike          eo    eo    can erase overstrikes
                                             with a blank
       generic_type              gn    gn    generic line type
       hard_copy                 hc    hc    hardcopy terminal
       has_meta_key              km    km    Has a meta key, sets
                                             msb high
       has_status_line           hs    hs    has extra status
                                             line
       insert_null_glitch        in    in    insert mode distinguishes
                                             nulls
       memory_above              da    da    display may be
                                             retained above the
                                             screen
       memory_below              db    db    display may be
                                             retained below the
                                             screen
       move_insert_mode          mir   mi    safe to move while
                                             in insert mode
       move_standout_mode        msgr  ms    safe to move while
                                             in standout mode
       over_strike               os    os    terminal can overstrike
       status_line_esc_ok        eslok es    escape can be used
                                             on the status line
       dest_tabs_magic_smso      xt    xt    tabs destructive,
                                             magic so char
                                             (t1061)
       tilde_glitch              hz    hz    can't print ~'s
                                             (hazeltine)
       transparent_underline     ul    ul    underline character
                                             overstrikes
       xon_xoff                  xon   xo    terminal uses
                                             xon/xoff handshaking
       needs_xon_xoff            nxon  nx    padding won't work,
                                             xon/xoff required
       prtr_silent               mc5i  5i    printer won't echo
                                             on screen
       hard_cursor               chts  HC    cursor is hard to
                                             see
       non_rev_rmcup             nrrmc NR    smcup does not
                                             reverse rmcup
       no_pad_char               npc   NP    pad character does
                                             not exist
       non_dest_scroll_region    ndscr ND    scrolling region is
                                             non-destructive
       can_change                ccc   cc    terminal can redefine
                                             existing colors
       back_color_erase          bce   ut    screen erased with
                                             background color
       hue_lightness_saturation  hls   hl    terminal uses only
                                             HLS color notation
                                             (tektronix)
       col_addr_glitch           xhpa  YA    only positive motion
                                             for hpa/mhpa caps
       cr_cancels_micro_mode     crxm  YB    using cr turns off
                                             micro mode
       has_print_wheel           daisy YC    printer needs operator
                                             to change character set
       row_addr_glitch           xvpa  YD    only positive motion
                                             for vpa/mvpa caps
       semi_auto_right_margin    sam   YE    printing in last
                                             column causes cr
       cpi_changes_res           cpix  YF    changing character
                                             pitch changes resolution
       lpi_changes_res           lpix  YG    changing line pitch
                                             changes resolution

These are the numeric capabilities:

               Variable          Cap- TCap    Description
	       Numeric           name Code
       ------------------------------------------------------------
       columns               cols     co     number of columns in
                                             aline
       init_tabs             it       it     tabs initially every
                                             # spaces
       lines                 lines    li     number of lines on
                                             screen or page
       lines_of_memory       lm       lm     lines of memory if >
                                             line. 0 => varies
       magic_cookie_glitch   xmc      sg     number of blank
                                             chars left by smso
                                             or rmso
       padding_baud_rate     pb       pb     lowest baud rate
                                             where padding needed
       virtual_terminal      vt       vt     virtual terminal
                                             number (CB/unix)
       width_status_line     wsl      ws     columns in status
                                             line
       num_labels            nlab     Nl     number of labels on
                                             screen
       label_height          lh       lh     rows in each label
       label_width           lw       lw     columns in each
                                             label
       max_attributes        ma       ma     maximum combined
                                             attributes terminal
                                             can handle
       maximum_windows       wnum     MW     maximum number of
                                             definable windows
       max_colors            colors   Co     maximum numbers of
                                             colors on screen
       max_pairs             pairs    pa     maximum number of
                                             color-pairs on the
                                             screen
       no_color_video        ncv      NC     video attributes
                                             that can't be used
                                             with colors

The following numeric capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term structure, but are not yet documented in the man page. They came in with SVr4's printer support.

               Variable          Cap- TCap    Description
	       Numeric           name Code
       ------------------------------------------------------------
       buffer_capacity        bufsz   Ya     numbers of bytes
                                             buffered before printing
       dot_vert_spacing       spinv   Yb     spacing of pins vertically
                                             in pins per inch
       dot_horz_spacing       spinh   Yc     spacing of dots horizontally
                                             in dots per inch
       max_micro_address      maddr   Yd     maximum value in
                                             micro_..._address
       max_micro_jump         mjump   Ye     maximum value in
                                             parm_..._micro
       micro_char_size        mcs     Yf     character size when
                                             in micro mode
       micro_line_size        mls     Yg     line size when in
                                             micro mode
       number_of_pins         npins   Yh     numbers of pins in
                                             print-head
       output_res_char        orc     Yi     horizontal resolution
                                             in units per line
       output_res_line        orl     Yj     vertical resolution
                                             in units per line
       output_res_horz_inch   orhi    Yk     horizontal resolution
                                             in units per inch
       output_res_vert_inch   orvi    Yl     vertical resolution
                                             in units per inch
       print_rate             cps     Ym     print rate in chars
                                             per second
       wide_char_size         widcs   Yn     character step size
                                             when in double wide
                                             mode
       buttons                btns    BT     number of buttons on
                                             mouse
       bit_image_entwining    bitwin  Yo     number of passed for
                                             each bit-image row
       bit_image_type         bitype  Yp     type of bit-image
                                             device

These are the string capabilities:

               Variable          Cap- TCap    Description
	       String            name Code
       ------------------------------------------------------------
       back_tab                  cbt    bt   back tab (P)
       bell                      bel    bl   audible signal
                                             (bell) (P)
       carriage_return           cr     cr   carriage return (P*)
                                             (P*)
       change_scroll_region      csr    cs   change region to
                                             line #1 to line #2
                                             (P) (P)
       clear_all_tabs            tbc    ct   clear all tab stops
                                             (P)
       clear_screen              clear  cl   clear screen and
                                             home cursor (P*)
       clr_eol                   el     ce   clear to end of line
                                             (P)
       clr_eos                   ed     cd   clear to end of
                                             screen (P*)
       column_address            hpa    ch   horizontal position
                                             #1, absolute (P)
       command_character         cmdch  CC   terminal settable
                                             cmd character in
                                             prototype !?
       cursor_address            cup    cm   move to row #1
                                             columns #2
       cursor_down               cud1   do   down one line
       cursor_home               home   ho   home cursor (if no
                                             cup)
       cursor_invisible          civis  vi   make cursor invisible
       cursor_left               cub1   le   move left one space
       cursor_mem_address        mrcup  CM   memory relative cursor
                                             addressing
       cursor_normal             cnorm  ve   make cursor appear
                                             normal (undo
                                             civis/cvvis)
       cursor_right              cuf1   nd   move right one space
       cursor_to_ll              ll     ll   last line, first
                                             column (if no cup)
       cursor_up                 cuu1   up   up one line
       cursor_visible            cvvis  vs   make cursor very
                                             visible
       delete_character          dch1   dc   delete character
                                             (P*)
       delete_line               dl1    dl   delete line (P*)
       dis_status_line           dsl    ds   disable status line
       down_half_line            hd     hd   half a line down
       enter_alt_charset_mode    smacs  as   start alternate
                                             character set (P)
       enter_blink_mode          blink  mb   turn on blinking
       enter_bold_mode           bold   md   turn on bold (extra
                                             bright) mode
       enter_ca_mode             smcup  ti   string to start programs
                                             using cup
       enter_delete_mode         smdc   dm   enter delete mode
       enter_dim_mode            dim    mh   turn on half-bright
                                             mode
       enter_insert_mode         smir   im   enter insert mode
       enter_secure_mode         invis  mk   turn on blank mode
                                             (characters invisible)
       enter_protected_mode      prot   mp   turn on protected
                                             mode
       enter_reverse_mode        rev    mr   turn on reverse
                                             video mode
       enter_standout_mode       smso   so   begin standout mode
       enter_underline_mode      smul   us   begin underline mode
       erase_chars               ech    ec   erase #1 characters
                                             (P)
       exit_alt_charset_mode     rmacs  ae   end alternate character
                                             set (P)
       exit_attribute_mode       sgr0   me   turn off all
                                             attributes
       exit_ca_mode              rmcup  te   strings to end programs
                                             using cup
       exit_delete_mode          rmdc   ed   end delete mode
       exit_insert_mode          rmir   ei   exit insert mode
       exit_standout_mode        rmso   se   exit standout mode
       exit_underline_mode       rmul   ue   exit underline mode
       flash_screen              flash  vb   visible bell (may
                                             not move cursor)
       form_feed                 ff     ff   hardcopy terminal
                                             page eject (P*)
       from_status_line          fsl    fs   return from status
                                             line
       init_1string              is1    i1   initialization
                                             string
       init_2string              is2    is   initialization
                                             string
       init_3string              is3    i3   initialization
                                             string
       init_file                 if     if   name of initialization
                                             file
       insert_character          ich1   ic   insert character (P)
       insert_line               il1    al   insert line (P*)
       insert_padding            ip     ip   insert padding after
                                             inserted character
       key_backspace             kbs    kb   backspace key
       key_catab                 ktbc   ka   clear-all-tabs key
       key_clear                 kclr   kC   clear-screen or
                                             erase key
       key_ctab                  kctab  kt   clear-tab key
       key_dc                    kdch1  kD   delete-character key
       key_dl                    kdl1   kL   delete-line key
       key_down                  kcud1  kd   down-arrow key
       key_eic                   krmir  kM   sent by rmir or smir
                                             in insert mode
       key_eol                   kel    kE   clear-to-end-of-line
                                             key
       key_eos                   ked    kS   clear-to-end-of-screen
                                             key
       key_f0                    kf0    k0   F0 function key
       key_f1                    kf1    k1   F1 function key
       key_f10                   kf10   k;   F10 function key
       key_f2                    kf2    k2   F2 function key
       key_f3                    kf3    k3   F3 function key
       key_f4                    kf4    k4   F4 function key
       key_f5                    kf5    k5   F5 function key
       key_f6                    kf6    k6   F6 function key
       key_f7                    kf7    k7   F7 function key
       key_f8                    kf8    k8   F8 function key
       key_f9                    kf9    k9   F9 function key
       key_home                  khome  kh   home key
       key_ic                    kich1  kI   insert-character key
       key_il                    kil1   kA   insert-line key
       key_left                  kcub1  kl   left-arrow key
       key_ll                    kll    kH   last-line key
       key_npage                 knp    kN   next-page key
       key_ppage                 kpp    kP   prev-page key
       key_right                 kcuf1  kr   right-arrow key
       key_sf                    kind   kF   scroll-forward key
       key_sr                    kri    kR   scroll-backward key
       key_stab                  khts   kT   set-tab key
       key_up                    kcuu1  ku   up-arrow key
       keypad_local              rmkx   ke   leave 'keyboard_transmit'
                                             mode
       keypad_xmit               smkx   ks   enter 'keyboard_transmit'
                                             mode
       lab_f0                    lf0    l0   label on function
                                             key f0 if not f0
       lab_f1                    lf1    l1   label on function
                                             key f1 if not f1
       lab_f10                   lf10   la   label on function
                                             key f10 if not f10
       lab_f2                    lf2    l2   label on function
                                             key f2 if not f2
       lab_f3                    lf3    l3   label on function
                                             key f3 if not f3
       lab_f4                    lf4    l4   label on function
                                             key f4 if not f4
       lab_f5                    lf5    l5   label on function
                                             key f5 if not f5
       lab_f6                    lf6    l6   label on function
                                             key f6 if not f6
       lab_f7                    lf7    l7   label on function
                                             key f7 if not f7
       lab_f8                    lf8    l8   label on function
                                             key f8 if not f8
       lab_f9                    lf9    l9   label on function
                                             key f9 if not f9
       meta_off                  rmm    mo   turn off meta mode
       meta_on                   smm    mm   turn on meta mode
                                             (8th-bit on)
       newline                   nel    nw   newline (behave like
                                             cr followed by lf)
       pad_char                  pad    pc   padding char
                                             (instead of null)
       parm_dch                  dch    DC   delete #1 chars (P*)
       parm_delete_line          dl     DL   delete #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_cursor          cud    DO   down #1 lines (P*)
       parm_ich                  ich    IC   insert #1 chars (P*)
       parm_index                indn   SF   scroll forward #1
                                             lines (P)
       parm_insert_line          il     AL   insert #1 lines (P*)
       parm_left_cursor          cub    LE   move #1 chars to the
                                             left (P)
       parm_right_cursor         cuf    RI   move #1 chars to the
                                             right (P*)
       parm_rindex               rin    SR   scroll back #1 lines
                                             (P)
       parm_up_cursor            cuu    UP   up #1 lines (P*)
       pkey_key                  pfkey  pk   program function key
                                             #1 to type string #2
       pkey_local                pfloc  pl   program function key
                                             #1 to execute string
                                             #2
       pkey_xmit                 pfx    px   program function key
                                             #1 to transmit
                                             string #2
       print_screen              mc0    ps   print contents of
                                             screen
       prtr_off                  mc4    pf   turn off printer
       prtr_on                   mc5    po   turn on printer
       repeat_char               rep    rp   repeat char #1 #2
                                             times (P*)
       reset_1string             rs1    r1   reset string
       reset_2string             rs2    r2   reset string
       reset_3string             rs3    r3   reset string
       reset_file                rf     rf   name of reset file
       restore_cursor            rc     rc   restore cursor to
                                             last position of sc
       row_address               vpa    cv   vertical position #1
                                             absolute (P)
       save_cursor               sc     sc   save current cursor
                                             position (P)
       scroll_forward            ind    sf   scroll text up (P)
       scroll_reverse            ri     sr   scroll text down (P)
       set_attributes            sgr    sa   define video
                                             attributes #1-#9
                                             (PG9)
       set_tab                   hts    st   set a tab in every
                                             row, current columns
       set_window                wind   wi   current window is
                                             lines #1-#2 cols
                                             #3-#4
       tab                       ht     ta   tab to next 8-space
                                             hardware tab stop
       to_status_line            tsl    ts   move to status line
       underline_char            uc     uc   underline char and
                                             move past it
       up_half_line              hu     hu   half a line up
       init_prog                 iprog  iP   path name of program
                                             for initialization
       key_a1                    ka1    K1   upper left of keypad
       key_a3                    ka3    K3   upper right of keypad
       key_b2                    kb2    K2   center of keypad
       key_c1                    kc1    K4   lower left of keypad
       key_c3                    kc3    K5   lower right of keypad
       prtr_non                  mc5p   pO   turn on printer for
                                             #1 bytes
       char_padding              rmp    rP   like ip but when in
                                             insert mode
       acs_chars                 acsc   ac   graphics charset
                                             pairs - def=vt100
       plab_norm                 pln    pn   program label #1 to
                                             show string #2
       key_btab                  kcbt   kB   back-tab key
       enter_xon_mode            smxon  SX   turn on xon/xoff
                                             handshaking
       exit_xon_mode             rmxon  RX   turn off xon/xoff
                                             handshaking
       enter_am_mode             smam   SA   turn on automatic
                                             margins
       exit_am_mode              rmam   RA   turn off automatic
                                             margins
       xon_character             xonc   XN   XON character
       xoff_character            xoffc  XF   XOFF character
       ena_acs                   enacs  eA   enable alternate
                                             char set
       label_on                  smln   LO   turn on soft labels
       label_off                 rmln   LF   turn off soft labels
       key_beg                   kbeg   @1   begin key
       key_cancel                kcan   @2   cancel key
       key_close                 kclo   @3   close key
       key_command               kcmd   @4   command key
       key_copy                  kcpy   @5   copy key
       key_create                kcrt   @6   create key
       key_end                   kend   @7   end key
       key_enter                 kent   @8   enter/send key
       key_exit                  kext   @9   exit key
       key_find                  kfnd   @0   find key
       key_help                  khlp   %1   help key
       key_mark                  kmrk   %2   mark key
       key_message               kmsg   %3   message key
       key_move                  kmov   %4   move key
       key_next                  knxt   %5   next key
       key_open                  kopn   %6   open key
       key_options               kopt   %7   options key
       key_previous              kprv   %8   previous key
       key_print                 kprt   %9   print key
       key_redo                  krdo   %0   redo key
       key_reference             kref   &1   reference key
       key_refresh               krfr   &2   refresh key
       key_replace               krpl   &3   replace key
       key_restart               krst   &4   restart key
       key_resume                kres   &5   resume key
       key_save                  ksav   &6   save key
       key_suspend               kspd   &7   suspend key
       key_undo                  kund   &8   undo key
       key_sbeg                  kBEG   &9   shifted key
       key_scancel               kCAN   &0   shifted key
       key_scommand              kCMD   *1   shifted key
       key_scopy                 kCPY   *2   shifted key
       key_screate               kCRT   *3   shifted key
       key_sdc                   kDC    *4   shifted key
       key_sdl                   kDL    *5   shifted key
       key_select                kslt   *6   select key
       key_send                  kEND   *7   shifted key
       key_seol                  kEOL   *8   shifted key
       key_sexit                 kEXT   *9   shifted key
       key_sfind                 kFND   *0   shifted key
       key_shelp                 kHLP   #1   shifted key
       key_shome                 kHOM   #2   shifted key
       key_sic                   kIC    #3   shifted key
       key_sleft                 kLFT   #4   shifted key
       key_smessage              kMSG   %a   shifted key
       key_smove                 kMOV   %b   shifted key
       key_snext                 kNXT   %c   shifted key
       key_soptions              kOPT   %d   shifted key
       key_sprevious             kPRV   %e   shifted key
       key_sprint                kPRT   %f   shifted key
       key_sredo                 kRDO   %g   shifted key
       key_sreplace              kRPL   %h   shifted key
       key_sright                kRIT   %i   shifted key
       key_srsume                kRES   %j   shifted key
       key_ssave                 kSAV   !1   shifted key
       key_ssuspend              kSPD   !2   shifted key
       key_sundo                 kUND   !3   shifted key
       req_for_input             rfi    RF   send next input char
                                             (for ptys)
       key_f11                   kf11   F1   F11 function key
       key_f12                   kf12   F2   F12 function key
       key_f13                   kf13   F3   F13 function key
       key_f14                   kf14   F4   F14 function key
       key_f15                   kf15   F5   F15 function key
       key_f16                   kf16   F6   F16 function key
       key_f17                   kf17   F7   F17 function key
       key_f18                   kf18   F8   F18 function key
       key_f19                   kf19   F9   F19 function key
       key_f20                   kf20   FA   F20 function key
       key_f21                   kf21   FB   F21 function key
       key_f22                   kf22   FC   F22 function key
       key_f23                   kf23   FD   F23 function key
       key_f24                   kf24   FE   F24 function key
       key_f25                   kf25   FF   F25 function key
       key_f26                   kf26   FG   F26 function key
       key_f27                   kf27   FH   F27 function key
       key_f28                   kf28   FI   F28 function key
       key_f29                   kf29   FJ   F29 function key
       key_f30                   kf30   FK   F30 function key
       key_f31                   kf31   FL   F31 function key
       key_f32                   kf32   FM   F32 function key
       key_f33                   kf33   FN   F33 function key
       key_f34                   kf34   FO   F34 function key
       key_f35                   kf35   FP   F35 function key
       key_f36                   kf36   FQ   F36 function key
       key_f37                   kf37   FR   F37 function key
       key_f38                   kf38   FS   F38 function key
       key_f39                   kf39   FT   F39 function key
       key_f40                   kf40   FU   F40 function key
       key_f41                   kf41   FV   F41 function key
       key_f42                   kf42   FW   F42 function key
       key_f43                   kf43   FX   F43 function key
       key_f44                   kf44   FY   F44 function key
       key_f45                   kf45   FZ   F45 function key
       key_f46                   kf46   Fa   F46 function key
       key_f47                   kf47   Fb   F47 function key
       key_f48                   kf48   Fc   F48 function key
       key_f49                   kf49   Fd   F49 function key
       key_f50                   kf50   Fe   F50 function key
       key_f51                   kf51   Ff   F51 function key
       key_f52                   kf52   Fg   F52 function key
       key_f53                   kf53   Fh   F53 function key
       key_f54                   kf54   Fi   F54 function key
       key_f55                   kf55   Fj   F55 function key
       key_f56                   kf56   Fk   F56 function key
       key_f57                   kf57   Fl   F57 function key
       key_f58                   kf58   Fm   F58 function key
       key_f59                   kf59   Fn   F59 function key
       key_f60                   kf60   Fo   F60 function key
       key_f61                   kf61   Fp   F61 function key
       key_f62                   kf62   Fq   F62 function key
       key_f63                   kf63   Fr   F63 function key
       clr_bol                   el1    cb   Clear to beginning
                                             of line
       clear_margins             mgc    MC   clear right and left
                                             soft margins
       set_left_margin           smgl   ML   set left soft margin
       set_right_margin          smgr   MR   set right soft margin
       label_format              fln    Lf   label format
       set_clock                 sclk   SC   set clock, #1 hrs #2
                                             mins #3 secs
       display_clock             dclk   DK   display clock at
                                             (#1,#2)
       remove_clock              rmclk  RC   remove clock
       create_window             cwin   CW   define a window #1
                                             from #2, #3 to #4,
                                             #5
       goto_window               wingo  WG   go to window #1
       hangup                    hup    HU   hang-up phone
       dial_phone                dial   DI   dial number #1
       quick_dial                qdial  QD   dial number #1 without
                                             checking
       tone                      tone   TO   select touch tone
                                             dialing
       pulse                     pulse  PU   select pulse
                                             dialing
       flash_hook                hook   fh   flash switch hook
       fixed_pause               pause  PA   pause for 2-3 seconds
       wait_tone                 wait   WA   wait for dial-tone
       user0                     u0     u0   User string #0
       user1                     u1     u1   User string #1
       user2                     u2     u2   User string #2
       user3                     u3     u3   User string #3
       user4                     u4     u4   User string #4
       user5                     u5     u5   User string #5
       user6                     u6     u6   User string #6
       user7                     u7     u7   User string #7
       user8                     u8     u8   User string #8
       user9                     u9     u9   User string #9
       orig_pair                 op     op   Set default pair to
                                             its original value
       orig_colors               oc     oc   Set all color pairs
                                             to the original ones
       initialize_color          initc  Ic   initialize color #1
                                             to (#2,#3,#4)
       initialize_pair           initp  Ip   Initialize color
                                             pair #1 to
                                             fg=(#2,#3,#4),
                                             bg=(#5,#6,#7)
       set_color_pair            scp    sp   Set current color
                                             pair to #1
       set_foreground            setf   Sf   Set foreground color #1
       set_background            setb   Sb   Set background color #1
       change_char_pitch         cpi    ZA   Change number of
                                             characters per inch
       change_line_pitch         lpi    ZB   Change number of
                                             lines per inch
       change_res_horz           chr    ZC   Change horizontal
                                             resolution
       change_res_vert           cvr    ZD   Change vertical resolution
       define_char               defc   ZE   Define a character
       enter_doublewide_mode     swidm  ZF   Enter double-wide
                                             mode
       enter_draft_quality       sdrfq  ZG   Enter draft-quality
                                             mode
       enter_italics_mode        sitm   ZH   Enter italic mode
       enter_leftward_mode       slm    ZI   Start leftward carriage
                                             motion
       enter_micro_mode          smicm  ZJ   Start micro-motion mode
       enter_near_letter_quality snlq   ZK   Enter NLQ mode
       enter_normal_quality      snrmq  ZL   Wnter normal-quality
                                             mode
       enter_shadow_mode         sshm   ZM   Enter shadow-print mode
       enter_subscript_mode      ssubm  ZN   Enter subscript mode
       enter_superscript_mode    ssupm  ZO   Enter superscript
                                             mode
       enter_upward_mode         sum    ZP   Start upward carriage
                                             motion
       exit_doublewide_mode      rwidm  ZQ   End double-wide mode
       exit_italics_mode         ritm   ZR   End italic mode
       exit_leftward_mode        rlm    ZS   End left-motion mode
       exit_micro_mode           rmicm  ZT   End micro-motion mode
       exit_shadow_mode          rshm   ZU   End shadow-print
                                             mode
       exit_subscript_mode       rsubm  ZV   End subscript mode
       exit_superscript_mode     rsupm  ZW   End superscript mode
       exit_upward_mode          rum    ZX   End reverse character
                                             motion
       micro_column_address      mhpa   ZY   Like column_address
                                             in micro mode
       micro_down                mcud1  ZZ   Like cursor_down in
                                             micro mode
       micro_left                mcub1  Za   Like cursor_left in
                                             micro mode
       micro_right               mcuf1  Zb   Like cursor_right in
                                             micro mode
       micro_row_address         mvpa   Zc   Like row_address in
                                             micro mode
       micro_up                  mcuu1  Zd   Like cursor_up in
                                             micro mode
       order_of_pins             porder Ze   Match software bits
                                             to print-head pins
       parm_down_micro           mcud   Zf   Like parm_down_cursor
                                             in micro mode
       parm_left_micro           mcub   Zg   Like parm_left_cursor
                                             in micro mode
       parm_right_micro          mcuf   Zh   Like parm_right_cursor
                                             in micro mode
       parm_up_micro             mcuu   Zi   Like parm_up_cursor
                                             in micro mode
       select_char_set           scs    Zj   Select character set
       set_bottom_margin         smgb   Zk   Set bottom margin at
                                             current line
       set_bottom_margin_parm    smgbp  Zl   Set bottom margin at
                                             line #1 or #2 lines
                                             from bottom
       set_left_margin_parm      smglp  Zm   Set left (right)
                                             margin at column #1
                                             (#2)
       set_right_margin_parm     smgrp  Zn   Set right margin at
                                             column #1
       set_top_margin            smgt   Zo   Set top margin at
                                             current line
       set_top_margin_parm       smgtp  Zp   Set top (bottom)
                                             margin at row #1
                                             (#2)
       start_bit_image           sbim   Zq   Start printing bit
                                             image braphics
       start_char_set_def        scsd   Zr   Start character set
                                             definition
       stop_bit_image            rbim   Zs   Stop printing bit
                                             image graphics
       stop_char_set_def         rcsd   Zt   End definition of
                                             character aet
       subscript_characters      subcs  Zu   List of subscriptable
                                             characters
       superscript_characters    supcs  Zv   List of superscriptable
                                             characters
       these_cause_cr            docr   Zw   Printing any of these
                                             chars causes CR
       zero_motion               zerom  Zx   No motion for subsequent
                                             character

The following string capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term structure, but are not documented in the man page.

               Variable          Cap- TCap    Description
	       String            name Code
       ------------------------------------------------------------
       char_set_names            csnm     Zy   List of character
                                               set names
       key_mouse                 kmous    Km   Mouse event has
                                               occurred
       mouse_info                minfo    Mi   Mouse status
                                               information
       req_mouse_pos             reqmp    RQ   Request mouse
                                               position
       get_mouse                 getm     Gm   Curses should get
                                               button events
       set_a_foreground          setaf    AF   Set ANSI foreground
                                               color
       set_a_background          setab    AB   Set ANSI background
                                               color
       pkey_plab                 pfxl     xl   Program function
                                               key #1 to type
                                               string #2 and show
                                               string #3
       device_type               devt     dv   Indicate language/
                                               codeset support
       code_set_init             csin     ci   Init sequence for
                                               multiple codesets
       set0_des_seq              s0ds     s0   Shift to code set
                                               0 (EUC set 0, ASCII)
       set1_des_seq              s1ds     s1   Shift to code set 1
       set2_des_seq              s2ds     s2   Shift to code set 2
       set3_des_seq              s3ds     s3   Shift to code set 3
       set_lr_margin             smglr    ML   Set both left and
                                               right margins to
                                               #1, #2
       set_tb_margin             smgtb    MT   Sets both top and
                                               bottom margins to
                                               #1, #2
       bit_image_repeat          birep    Xy   Repeat bit image
                                               cell #1 #2 times
       bit_image_newline         binel    Zz   Move to next row
                                               of the bit image
       bit_image_carriage_return bicr     Yv   Move to beginning
                                               of same row
       color_names               colornm  Yw   Give name for
                                               color #1
       define_bit_image_region   defbi    Yx   Define rectangular
                                               bit image region
       end_bit_image_region      endbi    Yy   End a bit-image
                                               region
       set_color_band            setcolor Yz   Change to ribbon
                                               color #1
       set_page_length           slines   YZ   Set page length to
                                               #1 lines
       display_pc_char           dispc    S1   Display PC character
       enter_pc_charset_mode     smpch    S2   Enter PC character
                                               display mode
       exit_pc_charset_mode      rmpch    S3   Exit PC character
                                               display mode
       enter_scancode_mode       smsc     S4   Enter PC scancode
                                               mode
       exit_scancode_mode        rmsc     S5   Exit PC scancode
                                               mode
       pc_term_options           pctrm    S6   PC terminal
                                               options
       scancode_escape           scesc    S7   Escape for scancode
                                               emulation
       alt_scancode_esc          scesa    S8   Alternate escape for
                                               scancode emulation

The XSI Curses standard added these. They are probably in some post-4.1 version of System V curses as well, but because XSI Curses lists them in strict alphabetical order we don't know if this is the right binary order. The ncurses termcap names for them are invented; according to the XSI Curses standard, they have no termcap names. If your compiled terminfo entries use these, they may not be binary-compatible with System V terminfo entries after SVr4.1; beware!

               Variable          Cap- TCap    Description
	       String            name Code
       ------------------------------------------------------------
        enter_horizontal_hl_mode ehhlm  Xh   Enter horizontal
                                             highlight mode
        enter_left_hl_mode       elhlm  Xl   Enter left highlight
                                             mode
        enter_low_hl_mode        elohlm Xo   Enter low highlight
                                             mode
        enter_right_hl_mode      erhlm  Xr   Enter right highlight
                                             mode
        enter_top_hl_mode        ethlm  Xt   Enter top highlight
                                             mode
        enter_vertical_hl_mode   evhlm  Xv   Enter vertical highlight
                                             mode

A Sample Entry

The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard terminal, is representative of what a terminfo entry for a modern terminal typically looks like.

     ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
             mc5i,
             colors#8, ncv#3, pairs#64,
             cub=\E[%p1%dD, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cuf=\E[%p1%dC,
             cuu=\E[%p1%dA, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dl=\E[%p1%dM,
             ech=\E[%p1%dX, el1=\E[1K, hpa=\E[%p1%dG, ht=\E[I,
             ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, indn=\E[%p1%dS,
             kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z,     kcub1=\E[D, kcud1=\E[B,
             kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, kf1=\E[M, kf10=\E[V,
             kf11=\E[W, kf12=\E[X, kf2=\E[N, kf3=\E[O, kf4=\E[P,
             kf5=\E[Q, kf6=\E[R, kf7=\E[S, kf8=\E[T, kf9=\E[U,
             kich1=\E[L, mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S,
             op=\E[37;40m, rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db,
             rin=\E[%p1%dT, s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B,
             s3ds=\E+B, setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
             setb=\E[4%?%p1%{1}%=%t4%e%p1%{3}%=%t6%e%p1%{4}%=%t1%e%p1%{6}%=%t3%e%p1%d%;m,
             setf=\E[3%?%p1%{1}%=%t4%e%p1%{3}%=%t6%e%p1%{4}%=%t1%e%p1%{6}%=%t3%e%p1%d%;m,
             sgr=\E[0;10%?%p1%t;7%;%?%p2%t;4%;%?%p3%t;7%;%?%p4%t;5%;%?%p6%t;1%;%?%p7%t;8%;%?%p8%t;11%;%?%p9%t;12%;m,
             sgr0=\E[0;10m, tbc=\E[2g, u6=\E[%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
             u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%p1%dd,

Entries may continue onto multiple lines by placing white space at the beginning of each line except the first. Comments may be included on lines beginning with #. Capabilities in terminfo are of three types: Boolean capabilities which indicate that the terminal has some particular feature, numeric capabilities giving the size of the terminal or the size of particular delays, and string capabilities, which give a sequence which can be used to perform particular terminal operations.

Types of Capabilities

All capabilities have names. For instance, the fact that ANSI-standard terminals have automatic margins (that is, an automatic return and line-feed when the end of a line is reached) is indicated by the capability am. Hence the description of ansi includes am. Numeric capabilities are followed by the character # and then the value. Thus cols, which indicates the number of columns the terminal has, gives the value 80 for ansi.

Finally, string valued capabilities, such as el (clear to end of line sequence) are given by the two-character code, an =, and then a string ending at the next following comma (,).

A number of escape sequences are provided in the string valued capabilities for easy encoding of characters there. Both \E and \e map to an ESCAPE character, ^x maps to a control-x for any appropriate x, and the sequences \n \l \r \t \b \f \s give a newline, line-feed, return, tab, backspace, form-feed, and space. Other escapes include \^ for ^, \\ for \, \, for comma, \: for :, and \0 for null. (\0 will produce \200, which does not terminate a string but behaves as a null character on most terminals.) Finally, characters may be given as three octal digits after a \.

A delay in milliseconds may appear anywhere in a string capability, enclosed in $<..> brackets, as in el=\EK$<5>, and padding characters are supplied by tputs to provide this delay. The delay must be a number with at most one decimal place of precision; it may be followed by suffixes * or / or both. A * indicates that the padding required is proportional to the number of lines affected by the operation, and the amount given is the per-affected-unit padding required. (In the case of insert character, the factor is still the number of lines affected.) Normally, padding is advisory if the device has the xon capability; it is used for cost computation but does not trigger delays. A / suffix indicates that the padding is mandatory and forces a delay of the given number of milliseconds even on devices for which xon is present to indicate flow control.

Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out. To do this, put a period before the capability name. For example, see the second ind in the example above.

Fetching Compiled Description

If the environment variable TERMINFO is set, it is interpreted as the pathname of a directory containing the compiled description you are working on. Only that directory is searched.

If TERMINFO is not set, the ncurses version of the terminfo reader code will instead look in the directory $HOME/.terminfo for a compiled description. If it fails to find one there, and the environment variable TERMINFO_DIRS is set, it will interpret the contents of that variable as a list of colon- separated directories to be searched (an empty entry is interpreted as a command to search $ROOTDIR/usr/lib/terminfo). If no description is found in any of the TERMINFO_DIRS directories, the fetch fails.

If neither TERMINFO nor TERMINFO_DIRS is set, the last place tried will be the system terminfo directory, $ROOTDIR/usr/lib/terminfo.

(Neither the $HOME/.terminfo lookups nor TERMINFO_DIRS extensions are supported under stock System V terminfo/curses.)

Preparing Descriptions

We now outline how to prepare descriptions of terminals. The most effective way to prepare a terminal description is by imitating the description of a similar terminal in terminfo and to build up a description gradually, using partial descriptions with vi or some other screen-oriented program to check that they are correct. Be aware that a very unusual terminal may expose deficiencies in the ability of the terminfo file to describe it or bugs in the screen-handling code of the test program.

To get the padding for insert line right (if the terminal manufacturer did not document it) a severe test is to edit /etc/passwd at 9600 baud, delete 16 or so lines from the middle of the screen, then hit the `u' key several times quickly. If the terminal messes up, more padding is usually needed. A similar test can be used for insert character.

Basic Capabilities

The number of columns on each line for the terminal is given by the cols numeric capability. If the terminal is a CRT, then the number of lines on the screen is given by the lines capability. If the terminal wraps around to the beginning of the next line when it reaches the right margin, then it should have the am capability. If the terminal can clear its screen, leaving the cursor in the home position, then this is given by the clear string capability. If the terminal overstrikes (rather than clearing a position when a character is struck over) then it should have the os capability. If the terminal is a printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os. (os applies to storage scope terminals, such as TEKTRONIX 4010 series, as well as hard copy and APL terminals.) If there is a code to move the cursor to the left edge of the current row, give this as cr. (Normally this will be carriage return, control M.) If there is a code to produce an audible signal (bell, beep, etc) give this as bel.

If there is a code to move the cursor one position to the left (such as backspace) that capability should be given as cub1. Similarly, codes to move to the right, up, and down should be given as cuf1, cuu1, and cud1. These local cursor motions should not alter the text they pass over, for example, you would not normally use `cuf1= ' because the space would erase the character moved over.

A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in terminfo are undefined at the left and top edges of a CRT terminal. Programs should never attempt to backspace around the left edge, unless bw is given, and never attempt to go up locally off the top. In order to scroll text up, a program will go to the bottom left corner of the screen and send the ind (index) string.

To scroll text down, a program goes to the top left corner of the screen and sends the ri (reverse index) string. The strings ind and ri are undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen. Parameterized versions of the scrolling sequences are indn and rin which have the same semantics as ind and ri except that they take one parameter, and scroll that many lines. They are also undefined except at the appropriate edge of the screen.

The am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge of the screen when text is output, but this does not necessarily apply to a cuf1 from the last column. The only local motion which is defined from the left edge is if bw is given, then a cub1 from the left edge will move to the right edge of the previous row. If bw is not given, the effect is undefined. This is useful for drawing a box around the edge of the screen, for example. If the terminal has switch selectable automatic margins, the terminfo file usually assumes that this is on; that is, am. If the terminal has a command which moves to the first column of the next line, that command can be given as nel (newline). It does not matter if the command clears the remainder of the current line, so if the terminal has no cr and lf it may still be possible to craft a working nel out of one or both of them.

These capabilities suffice to describe hard-copy and "glass-tty" terminals. Thus the model 33 teletype is described as

     33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
     bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

     adm3|3|lsi adm3,
     am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
     ind=^J, lines#24,

Parameterized Strings

Cursor addressing and other strings requiring parameters in the terminal are described by a parameterized string capability, with printf() like escapes %x in it. For example, to address the cursor, the cup capability is given, using two parameters: the row and column to address to. (Rows and columns are numbered from zero and refer to the physical screen visible to the user, not to any unseen memory.) If the terminal has memory relative cursor addressing, that can be indicated by mrcup.

The parameter mechanism uses a stack and special % codes to manipulate it. Typically a sequence will push one of the parameters onto the stack and then print it in some format. Often more complex operations are necessary.

The % encodings have the following meanings:

            %%        outputs `%'
            %d        print pop() as in printf
            %2d       print pop() like %2d
            %3d       print pop() like %3d
            %02d
            %03d      as in printf
            %x        print pop() as in printf
            %2x       print pop() like %2x
            %3        print pop() like %3x
            %02x
            %03x      as in printf
            %c        print pop() gives %c
            %s        print pop() gives %s

            %p[1-9]   push i'th parm
            %P[a-z]   set variable [a-z] to pop()
            %g[a-z]   get variable [a-z] and push it
            %'c'      char constant c
            %{nn}     integer constant nn

            %+ %- %* %/ %m
                      arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())
            %& %| %^  bit operations: push(pop() op pop())
            %= %> %<  logical operations: push(pop() op   pop())
            %A, %O    logical and & or operations (for conditionals)
            %! %~     unary operations push(op pop())
            %i        add 1 to first two parms (for ANSI terminals)

            %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
                      if-then-else, %e elsepart is optional.
                      else-if's are possible a la Algol 68:
                      %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;
                      ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

Binary operations are in postfix form with the operands in the usual order. That is, to get x-5 one would use "%gx%{5}%-". %P and %g variables are persistent across escape-string evaluations.

Consider the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs to be sent \E&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds. Note that the order of the rows and columns is inverted here, and that the row and column are printed as two digits. Thus its cup capability is "cup=6\E&%p2%2dc%p1%2dY".

The Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded by a ^T, with the row and column simply encoded in binary, "cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c". Terminals which use "%c" need to be able to backspace the cursor (cub1), and to move the cursor up one line on the screen (cuu1). This is necessary because it is not always safe to transmit \n ^D and \r, as the system may change or discard them. (The library routines dealing with terminfo set tty modes so that tabs are never expanded, so \t is safe to send. This turns out to be essential for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

A final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset by a blank character, thus "cup=\E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%' '%+%c". After sending \E=, this pushes the first parameter, pushes the ASCII value for a space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on the stack in place of the two previous values) and outputs that value as a character. Then the same is done for the second parameter. More complex arithmetic is possible using the stack.

If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these can be given as single parameter capabilities hpa (horizontal position absolute) and vpa (vertical position absolute). Sometimes these are shorter than the more general two parameter sequence (as with the hp2645) and can be used in preference to cup. If there are parameterized local motions (for example, move n spaces to the right) these can be given as cud, cub, cuf, and cuu with a single parameter indicating how many spaces to move. These are primarily useful if the terminal does not have cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

Cursor Motions

If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very upper left corner of screen) then this can be given as home; similarly a fast way of getting to the lower left hand corner can be given as ll; this may involve going up with cuu1 from the home position, but a program should never do this itself (unless ll does) because it can make no assumption about the effect of moving up from the home position. Note that the home position is the same as addressing to (0,0): to the top left corner of the screen, not of memory. (Thus, the \EH sequence on HP terminals cannot be used for home.)

Area Clears

If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the line, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be given as el. If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the display, then this should be given as ed. Ed is only defined from the first column of a line. (Thus, it can be simulated by a request to delete a large number of lines, if a true ed is not available.)

Insert/Delete Line and Vertical Motions

If the terminal can open a new blank line before the line where the cursor is, this should be given as il1; this is done only from the first position of a line. The cursor must then appear on the newly blank line. If the terminal can delete the line which the cursor is on, then this should be given as dl1; this is done only from the first position on the line to be deleted. Versions of il1 and dl1 which take a single parameter and insert or delete that many lines can be given as il and dl. If the terminal has a settable scrolling region (like the vt100) the command to set this can be described with the csr capability, which takes two parameters: the top and bottom lines of the scrolling region. The cursor position is, alas, undefined after using this command.

It is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line using csr on a properly chosen region; the sc and rc (save and restore cursor) commands may be useful for ensuring that your synthesized insert/delete string does not move the cursor. (Note that the ncurses library does this synthesis automatically, so you need not compose insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to use a combination of index with the memory-lock feature found on some terminals (like the HP-700/90 series, which however also has insert/delete).

Inserting lines at the top or bottom of the screen can also be done using ri or ind on many terminals without a true insert/delete line, and is often faster even on terminals with those features.

The boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set if each scrolling window is effectively a view port on a screen-sized canvas. To test for this capability, create a scrolling region in the middle of the screen, write something to the bottom line, move the cursor to the top of the region, and do ri followed by dl1 or ind. If the data scrolled off the bottom of the region by the ri reappears, then scrolling is non-destructive. System V and XSI Curses expect that ind, ri, indn, and rin will simulate destructive scrolling; their documentation cautions you not to define csr unless this is true. This curses implementation is more liberal and will do explicit erases after scrolling if ndstr is defined.

If the terminal has the ability to define a window as part of memory, which all commands affect, it should be given as the parameterized string wind. The four parameters are the starting and ending lines in memory and the starting and ending columns in memory, in that order.

If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the da capability should be given; if display memory can be retained below, then db should be given. These indicate that deleting a line or scrolling may bring non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling back with ri may bring down non-blank lines.

Insert/Delete Character

There are two basic kinds of intelligent terminals with respect to insert/delete character which can be described using terminfo. The most common insert/delete character operations affect only the characters on the current line and shift characters off the end of the line rigidly. Other terminals, such as the Concept 100 and the Perkin Elmer Owl, make a distinction between typed and untyped blanks on the screen, shifting upon an insert or delete only to an untyped blank on the screen which is either eliminated, or expanded to two untyped blanks. You can determine the kind of terminal you have by clearing the screen and then typing text separated by cursor motions. Type "abc def" using local cursor motions (not spaces) between the "abc" and the "def". Then position the cursor before the "abc" and put the terminal in insert mode. If typing characters causes the rest of the line to shift rigidly and characters to fall off the end, then your terminal does not distinguish between blanks and untyped positions. If the "abc" shifts over to the "def" which then move together around the end of the current line and onto the next as you insert, you have the second type of terminal, and should give the capability in, which stands for "insert null". While these are two logically separate attributes (one line vs. multi-line insert mode, and special treatment of untyped spaces) we have seen no terminals whose insert mode cannot be described with the single attribute.

Terminfo can describe both terminals which have an insert mode, and terminals which send a simple sequence to open a blank position on the current line. Give as smir the sequence to get into insert mode. Give as rmir the sequence to leave insert mode. Now give as ich1 any sequence needed to be sent just before sending the character to be inserted. Most terminals with a true insert mode will not give ich1; terminals which send a sequence to open a screen position should give it here.

If your terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable to ich1. Technically, you should not give both unless the terminal actually requires both to be used in combination. Accordingly, some non-curses applications get confused if both are present; the symptom is doubled characters in an update using insert. This requirement is now rare; most ich sequences do not require previous smir, and most smir insert modes do not require ich1 before each character. Therefore, the new curses actually assumes this is the case and uses either rmir/smir or ich/ich1 as appropriate (but not both). If you have to write an entry to be used under new curses for a terminal old enough to need both, include the rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

If post insert padding is needed, give this as a number of milliseconds in ip (a string option). Any other sequence which may need to be sent after an insert of a single character may also be given in ip. If your terminal needs both to be placed into an `insert mode' and a special code to precede each inserted character, then both smir/rmir and ich1 can be given, and both will be used. The ich capability, with one parameter, n, will repeat the effects of ich1 n times.

It is occasionally necessary to move around while in insert mode to delete characters on the same line (for example, if there is a tab after the insertion position). If your terminal allows motion while in insert mode you can give the capability mir to speed up inserting in this case. Omitting mir will affect only speed. Some terminals (notably Datamedia's) must not have mir because of the way their insert mode works.

Finally, you can specify dch1 to delete a single character, dch with one parameter, n, to delete n characters, and delete mode by giving smdc and rmdc to enter and exit delete mode (any mode the terminal needs to be placed in for dch1 to work).

A command to erase n characters (equivalent to outputting n blanks without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one parameter.

Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible

If your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can be represented in a number of different ways. You should choose one display form as standout mode, representing a good, high contrast, easy-on-the-eyes, format for highlighting error messages and other attention getters. (If you have a choice, reverse video plus half-bright is good, or reverse video alone.) The sequences to enter and exit standout mode are given as smso and rmso, respectively. If the code to change into or out of standout mode leaves one or even two blank spaces on the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do, then xmc should be given to tell how many spaces are left.

Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given as smul and rmul respectively. If the terminal has a code to underline the current character and move the cursor one space to the right, such as the Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

Other capabilities to enter various highlighting modes include blink (blinking) bold (bold or extra bright) dim (dim or half-bright) invis (blanking or invisible text) prot (protected) rev (reverse video) sgr0 (turn off all attribute modes) smacs (enter alternate character set mode) and rmacs (exit alternate character set mode). Turning on any of these modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.

If there is a sequence to set arbitrary combinations of modes, this should be given as sgr (set attributes), taking 9 parameters. Each parameter is either 0 or 1, as the corresponding attribute is on or off. The 9 parameters are, in order: standout, underline, reverse, blink, dim, bold, blank, protect, alternate character set. Not all modes need be supported by sgr, only those for which corresponding separate attribute commands exist.

Terminals with the ``magic cookie'' glitch (xmc) deposit special ``cookies'' when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect the display algorithm rather than having extra bits for each character. Some terminals, such as the HP 2621, automatically leave standout mode when they move to a new line or the cursor is addressed. Programs using standout mode should exit standout mode before moving the cursor or sending a newline, unless the msgr capability, asserting that it is safe to move in standout mode, is present.

If the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error quietly (a bell replacement) then this can be given as flash; it must not move the cursor.

If the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is not on the bottom line (to make, for example, a non-blinking underline into an easier to find block or blinking underline) give this sequence as cvvis. If there is a way to make the cursor completely invisible, give that as civis. The capability cnorm should be given which undoes the effects of both of these modes.

If the terminal needs to be in a special mode when running a program that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and exit this mode can be given as smcup and rmcup. This arises, for example, from terminals like the Concept with more than one page of memory. If the terminal has only memory relative cursor addressing and not screen relative cursor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed into the terminal for cursor addressing to work properly. This is also used for the TEKTRONIX 4025, where smcup sets the command character to be the one used by terminfo.

If your terminal correctly generates underlined characters (with no special codes needed) even though it does not overstrike, then you should give the capability ul. If overstrikes are erasable with a blank, then this should be indicated by giving eo.

Keypad Handling

If the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes when the keys are pressed, this information can be given. Note that it is not possible to handle terminals where the keypad only works in local (this applies, for example, to the unshifted HP 2621 keys). If the keypad can be set to transmit or not transmit, give these codes as smkx and rmkx. Otherwise the keypad is assumed to always transmit. The codes sent by the left arrow, right arrow, up arrow, down arrow, and home keys can be given as kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1, and khome respectively. If there are function keys such as f0, f1, ..., f10, the codes they send can be given as kf0, kf1, ..., kf10. If these keys have labels other than the default f0 through f10, the labels can be given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10. The codes transmitted by certain other special keys can be given: kll (home down), kbs (backspace), ktbc (clear all tabs), kctab (clear the tab stop in this column), kclr (clear screen or erase key), kdch1 (delete character), kdl1 (delete line), krmir (exit insert mode), kel (clear to end of line), ked (clear to end of screen), kich1 (insert character or enter insert mode), kil1 (insert line), knp (next page), kpp (previous page), kind (scroll forward/down), kri (scroll backward/up), khts (set a tab stop in this column). In addition, if the keypad has a 3 by 3 array of keys including the four arrow keys, the other five keys can be given as ka1, ka3, kb2, kc1, and kc3. These keys are useful when the effects of a 3 by 3 directional pad are needed.

Tabs and Initialization

If the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to the next tab stop can be given as ht (usually control I). A ``back-tab'' command which moves leftward to the next tab stop can be given as cbt. By convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs are being expanded by the computer rather than being sent to the terminal, programs should not use ht or cbt even if they are present, since the user may not have the tab stops properly set. If the terminal has hardware tabs which are initially set every n spaces when the terminal is powered up, the numeric parameter it is given, showing the number of spaces the tabs are set to. This is normally used by the tset command to determine whether to set the mode for hardware tab expansion, and whether to set the tab stops. If the terminal has tab stops that can be saved in nonvolatile memory, the terminfo description can assume that they are properly set.

Other capabilities include is1, is2, and is3, initialization strings for the terminal, iprog, the path name of a program to be run to initialize the terminal, and if, the name of a file containing long initialization strings. These strings are expected to set the terminal into modes consistent with the rest of the terminfo description. They are normally sent to the terminal, by the tset program, each time the user logs in. They will be printed in the following order: is1; is2; setting tabs using tbc and hts; if; running the program iprog; and finally is3. Most initialization is done with is2. Special terminal modes can be set up without duplicating strings by putting the common sequences in is2 and special cases in is1 and is3. A pair of sequences that does a harder reset from a totally unknown state can be analogously given as rs1, rs2, rf, and rs3, analogous to is2 and if. These strings are output by the reset program, which is used when the terminal gets into a wedged state. Commands are normally placed in rs2 and rf only if they produce annoying effects on the screen and are not necessary when logging in. For example, the command to set the vt100 into 80-column mode would normally be part of is2, but it causes an annoying glitch of the screen and is not normally needed since the terminal is usually already in 80 column mode.

If there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be given as tbc (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a tab stop in the current column of every row). If a more complex sequence is needed to set the tabs than can be described by this, the sequence can be placed in is2 or if.

Delays and Padding

Many older and slower terminals don't support either XON/XOFF or DTR handshaking, including hard copy terminals and some very archaic CRTs (including, for example, DEC VT100s). These may require padding characters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

If the terminal uses XON/XOFF handshaking for flow control (that is, it automatically emits ^S back to the host when its input buffers are close to full), set xon. This capability suppresses the emission of padding. You can also set it for memory-mapped console devices effectively that don't have a speed limit. Padding information should still be included so that routines can make better decisions about relative costs, but actual pad characters will not be transmitted.

If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud rates below the value of pb. If the entry has no padding baud rate, then whether padding is emitted or not is completely controlled by xon.

If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad, then this can be given as pad. Only the first character of the pad string is used.

Status Lines

Some terminals have an extra `status line' which is not normally used by software (and thus not counted in the terminal's lines capability).

The simplest case is a status line which is cursor-addressable but not part of the main scrolling region on the screen; the Heathkit H19 has a status line of this kind, as would a 24-line VT100 with a 23-line scrolling region set up on initialization. This situation is indicated by the hs capability.

Some terminals with status lines need special sequences to access the status line. These may be expressed as a string with single parameter tsl which takes the cursor to a given zero-origin column on the status line. The capability fsl must return to the main-screen cursor positions before the last tsl. You may need to embed the string values of sc (save cursor) and rc (restore cursor) in tsl and fsl to accomplish this.

The status line is normally assumed to be the same width as the width of the terminal. If this is untrue, you can specify it with the numeric capability wsl.

A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as dsl.

The boolean capability eslok specifies that escape sequences, tabs, etc. work ordinarily in the status line.

The ncurses implementation does not yet use any of these capabilities. They are documented here in case they ever become important.

Line Graphics

Many terminals have alternate character sets useful for forms-drawing. Terminfo and curses build in support for the drawing characters supported by the VT100, with some characters from the AT&T 4410v1 added. This alternate character set may be specified by the acsc capability.

       Glyph                      ACS           Ascii      VT100
       Name                       Name          Default    Name
       ---------------------------------------------------------
       upper left corner          ACS_ULCORNER    +          l
       lower left corner          ACS_LLCORNER    +          m
       upper right corner         ACS_URCORNER    +          k
       lower right corner         ACS_LRCORNER    +          j
       tee pointing right         ACS_LTEE        +          t
       tee pointing left          ACS_RTEE        +          u
       tee pointing up            ACS_BTEE        +          v
       tee pointing down          ACS_TTEE        +          w
       horizontal line            ACS_HLINE       -          q
       vertical line              ACS_VLINE       |          x
       large plus or crossover    ACS_PLUS        +          n
       scan line 1                ACS_S1          ~          o
       scan line 9                ACS_S9          _          s
       diamond                    ACS_DIAMOND     +          `
       checker board (stipple)    ACS_CKBOARD     :          a
       degree symbol              ACS_DEGREE      \          f
       plus/minus                 ACS_PLMINUS     #          g
       bullet                     ACS_BULLET      o          ~
       arrow pointing left        ACS_LARROW      <          ,
       arrow pointing right       ACS_RARROW      >          +
       arrow pointing down        ACS_DARROW      v          .
       arrow pointing up          ACS_UARROW      ^          -
       board of squares           ACS_BOARD       #          h
       lantern symbol             ACS_LANTERN     #          I
       solid square block         ACS_BLOCK       #          0

The best way to define a new device's graphics set is to add a column to a copy of this table for your terminal, giving the character which (when emitted between smacs/rmacs switches) will be rendered as the corresponding graphic. Then read off the VT100/your terminal character pairs right to left in sequence; these become the ACSC string.

Color Handling

Most color terminals are either `Tektronix-like' or `HP-like'. Tektronix-like terminals have a predefined set of N colors (where N usually 8), and can set character-cell foreground and background characters independently, mixing them into N * N color-pairs. On HP-like terminals, the use must set each color pair up separately (foreground and background are not independently settable). Up to M color-pairs may be set up from 2*M different colors. ANSI-compatible terminals are Tektronix-like.

Some basic color capabilities are independent of the color method. The numeric capabilities colors and pairs specify the maximum numbers of colors and color-pairs that can be displayed simultaneously. The op (original pair) string resets foreground and background colors to their default values for the terminal. The oc string resets all colors or color-pairs to their default values for the terminal. Some terminals (including many PC terminal emulators) erase screen areas with the current background color rather than the power-up default background; these should have the boolean capability bce.

To change the current foreground or background color on a Tektronix-type terminal, use setaf (set ANSI foreground) and setab (set ANSI background) or setf (set foreground) and setb (set background). These take one parameter, the color number. The SVr4 documentation describes only setaf/setab; the XPG4 draft says that "If the terminal supports ANSI escape sequences to set background and foreground, they should be coded as setaf and setab, respectively. If the terminal supports other escape sequences to set background and foreground, they should be coded as setf and setb, respectively. The vidputs() function and the refresh() functions use setaf and setab if they are defined."

The setaf/setab and setf/setb capabilities take a single numeric argument each. Argument values 0-7 are portably defined as follows (the middle column is the symbolic #define available in the header for the curses or ncurses libraries). The terminal hardware is free to map these as it likes, but the RGB values indicate normal locations in color space.

     Color     #define        Value   RGB
     -------------------------------------------
     black     COLOR_BLACK      0     0, 0, 0
     red       COLOR_RED        1     max,0,0
     green     COLOR_GREEN      2     0,max,0
     yellow    COLOR_YELLOW     3     max,max,0
     blue      COLOR_BLUE       4     0,0,max
     magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA    5     max,0,max
     cyan      COLOR_CYAN       6     0,max,max
     white     COLOR_WHITE      7     max,max,max

On an HP-like terminal, use scp with a color-pair number parameter to set which color pair is current.

On a Tektronix-like terminal, the capability ccc may be present to indicate that colors can be modified. If so, the initc capability will take a color number (0 to colors - 1)and three more parameters which describe the color. These three parameters default to being interpreted as RGB (Red, Green, Blue) values. If the boolean capability hls is present, they are instead as HLS (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) indices. The ranges are terminal-dependent.

On an HP-like terminal, initp may give a capability for changing a color-pair value. It will take seven parameters; a color-pair number (0 to max_pairs - 1), and two triples describing first background and then foreground colors. These parameters must be (Red, Green, Blue) or (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on hls.

On some color terminals, colors collide with highlights. You can register these collisions with the ncv capability. This is a bit-mask of attributes not to be used when colors are enabled. The correspondence with the attributes understood by curses is as follows:

     Attribute       Bit    Decimal
     ------------------------------
     A_STANDOUT       0       1
     A_UNDERLINE      1       2
     A_REVERSE        2       4
     A_BLINK          3       8
     A_DIM            4       16
     A_BOLD           5       32
     A_INVIS          6       64
     A_PROTECT        7       128
     A_ALTCHARSET     8       256

For example, on many IBM PC consoles, the underline attribute collides with the foreground color blue and is not available in color mode. These should have an ncv capability of 2.

Miscellaneous

If the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can be indicated with hu (half-line up) and hd (half-line down). This is primarily useful for superscripts and subscripts on hard-copy terminals. If a hard-copy terminal can eject to the next page (form feed), give this as ff (usually control L).

If there is a command to repeat a given character a given number of times (to save time transmitting a large number of identical characters) this can be indicated with the parameterized string rep. The first parameter is the character to be repeated and the second is the number of times to repeat it. Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10) is the same as `xxxxxxxxxx'.

If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025, this can be indicated with cmdch. A prototype command character is chosen which is used in all capabilities. This character is given in the cmdch capability to identify it. The following convention is supported on some UNIX systems: The environment is to be searched for a CC variable, and if found, all occurrences of the prototype character are replaced with the character in the environment variable.

Terminal descriptions that do not represent a specific char of known terminal, such as switch, dialup, patch, and network, should include the gn (generic) capability so that programs can complain that they do not know how to talk to the terminal. (This capability does not apply to virtual> terminal descriptions for which the escape sequences are known.)

If the terminal has a ``meta key'' which acts as a shift key, setting the 8th bit of any character transmitted, this fact can be indicated with km. Otherwise, software will assume that the 8th bit is parity and it will usually be cleared. If strings exist to turn this ``meta mode'' on and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen at once, the number of lines of memory can be indicated with lm. A value of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed, but that there is still more memory than fits on the screen.

If the terminal is one of those supported by the UNIX virtual terminal protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.

Media copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected to the terminal can be given as mc0: print the contents of the screen, mc4: turn off the printer, and mc5: turn on the printer. When the printer is on, all text sent to the terminal will be sent to the printer. It is undefined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal screen when the printer is on. A variation mc5p takes one parameter, and leaves the printer on for as many characters as the value of the parameter, then turns the printer off. The parameter should not exceed 255. All text, including mc4, is transparently passed to the printer while an mc5p is in effect.

Strings to program function keys can be given as pfkey, pfloc, and pfx. Each of these strings takes two parameters: the function key number to program (from 0 to 10) and the string to program it with. Function key numbers out of this range may program undefined keys in a terminal dependent manner. The difference between the capabilities is that pfkey causes pressing the given key to be the same as the user typing the given string; pfloc causes the string to be executed by the terminal in local; and pfx causes the string to be transmitted to the computer.

Glitches and Brain Damage

Hazeltine terminals, which do not allow `~' characters to be displayed should indicate hz.

Terminals which ignore a line-feed immediately after an am wrap, such as the Concept and vt100, should indicate xenl.

If el is required to get rid of standout (instead of merely writing normal text on top of it), xhp should be given.

Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks, should indicate xt (destructive tabs). Note: the variable indicating this is now dest_tabs_magic_smso; in older versions, it was teleray_glitch. This glitch is also taken to mean that it is not possible to position the cursor on top of a ``magic cookie'', that to erase standout mode it is instead necessary to use delete and insert line. The ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.

The Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the escape or control C characters, has xsb, indicating that the f1 key is used for escape and f2 for control C. (Only certain Superbees have this problem, depending on the ROM.) Note that in older terminfo versions, this capability was called beehive_glitch; it is now no_esc_ctl_c.

Other specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more capabilities of the form xx.

Similar Terminals

If there are two very similar terminals, one can be defined as being just like the other with certain exceptions. The string capability use can be given with the name of the similar terminal. The capabilities given before use override those in the terminal type invoked by use. A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of the capability definition, where xx is the capability. For example, the entry

2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

defines a 2621-nl that does not have the smkx or rmkx capabilities, and hence does not turn on the function key labels when in visual mode. This is useful for different modes for a terminal, or for different user preferences.

Pitfalls of Long Entries

Long terminfo entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date, no entry has even approached terminfo's 4K string table maximum. Unfortunately, the termcap translations are much more strictly limited (to 1K), thus termcap translations of long terminfo entries can cause problems.

The man pages for 4.3BSD and older versions of tgetent() instruct the user to allocate a 1K buffer for the termcap entry. The entry gets null-terminated by the termcap library, so that makes the maximum safe length for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes. Depending on what the application and the termcap library being used does, and where in the termcap file the terminal type that tgetent() is searching for is, several bad things can happen.

Some termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if they find an entry that's longer than 1023 bytes; others don't; others truncate the entries to 1023 bytes. Some application programs allocate more than the recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others don't.

Each termcap entry has two important sizes associated with it: before "tc" expansion, and after "tc" expansion. "tc" is the capability that tacks on another termcap entry to the end of the current one, to add on its capabilities. If a termcap entry doesn't use the "tc" capability, then of course the two lengths are the same.

The "before tc expansion" length is the most important one, because it affects more than just users of that particular terminal. This is the length of the entry as it exists in /etc/termcap, minus the backslash-newline pairs, which tgetent() strips out while reading it. Some termcap libraries strip off the final newline, too (GNU termcap does not). Now suppose:

Then tgetent() will overwrite memory, perhaps its stack, and probably core dump the program. Programs like telnet are particularly vulnerable; modern telnets pass along values like the terminal type automatically. The results are almost as undesirable with a termcap library, like SunOS 4.1.3 and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages when it reads an overly long termcap entry. If a termcap library truncates long entries, like OSF/1 3.0, it is immune to dying here but will return incorrect data for the terminal.

The "after tc expansion" length will have a similar effect to the above, but only for people who actually set TERM to that terminal type, since tgetent() only does "tc" expansion once it's found the terminal type it was looking for, not while searching.

In summary, a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes can cause, on various combinations of termcap libraries and applications, a core dump, warnings, or incorrect operation. If it's too long even before "tc" expansion, it will have this effect even for users of some other terminal types and users whose TERM variable does not have a termcap entry.

When in -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses implementation of tic issues warning messages when the pretc length of a termcap translation is too long. The -c (check) option also checks resolved (after tc expansion) lengths.

Binary Compatibility

It is not wise to count on portability of binary terminfo entries between commercial UNIX versions. The problem is that there are at least two versions of terminfo (under HP-UX and AIX) which diverged from System V terminfo after SVr1, and have added extension capabilities to the string table that (in the binary format) collide with System V and XSI Curses extensions.


EXTENSIONS

The %x operator in parameterized strings is unique to the ncurses implementation of tparm() (it is required in order to support an unfortunate choice of initc format on the Linux console).

Some SVr4 curses implementations, and all previous to SVr4, don't interpret the %A and %O operators in parameter strings.

SVr4/XPG4 do not specify whether msgr licenses movement while in an alternate-character-set mode (such modes may, among other things, map CR and NL to characters that don't trigger local motions). The ncurses implementation ignores msgr in ALTCHARSET mode. This raises the possibility that an XPG4 implementation making the opposite interpretation may need terminfo entries made for ncurses to have msgr turned off.

The ncurses library handles insert-character and delete-character modes in a slightly non-standard way in order to get better update efficiency. See the Insert/Delete Character subsection above.

The parameter substitutions for set_clock() and display_clock() are not documented in SVr4 or the XSI Curses standard. They are deduced from the documentation for the AT&T 505 terminal.

Be careful assigning the kmous capability. The ncurses wants to interpret it as KEY_MOUSE, for use by terminals and emulators like xterm that can return mouse-tracking information in the keyboard-input stream.

Different commercial ports of terminfo and curses support different subsets of the XSI Curses standard and (in some cases) different extension sets. Here is a summary, accurate as of October 1995:

SVR4, Solaris, ncurses 

These support all SVr4 capabilities.

SGI 

Supports the SVr4 set, adds one undocumented extended string capability (set_pglen).

SVr1, Ultrix 

These support a restricted subset of terminfo capabilities. The booleans end with xon_xoff; the numerics with width_status_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

HP/UX 

Supports the SVr1 subset, plus the SVr[234] numerics num_labels, label_height, label_width, plus function keys 11 through 63, plus plab_norm, label_on, and label_off, plus some incompatible extensions in the string table.

AIX 

Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11 through 63, plus a number of incompatible string table extensions.

OSF 

Supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.


FILES

$ROOTDIR/usr/lib/terminfo/?/* 

files containing terminal descriptions


AUTHORS

Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond. Descends from the original pcurses by Pavel Curtis.


AVAILABILITY

PTC MKS Toolkit for Professional Developers
PTC MKS Toolkit for Enterprise Developers
PTC MKS Toolkit for Enterprise Developers 64-Bit Edition


SEE ALSO

Commands:
tic

Functions:
curses(), printf()

Miscellaneous:
term


PTC MKS Toolkit 10.1 Documentation Build 15.