openssl pkcs12

PKCS#12 file utility 

openssl command


SYNOPSIS

openssl pkcs12 [-help] [-export] [-chain] [-inkey file_or_id] [-certfile filename] [-name name] [-caname name] [-in filename] [-out filename] [-noout] [-nomacver] [-nocerts] [-clcerts] [-cacerts] [-nokeys] [-info] [-des|-des3|-idea|-aes128|-aes192|-aes256|-aria128|-aria192|-aria256|-camellia128|-camellia192|-camellia256|-nodes] [-noiter] [-maciter|-nomaciter|-nomac] [-twopass] [-descert] [-certpbe cipher] [-keypbe cipher] [-macalg cipher] [-keyex] [-keysig] [-password arg] [-passin arg] [-passout arg] [-rand file...] [-writerand file] [-CAfile file] [-CApath dir] [-no-CAfile] [-no-CApath] [-CSP name]


DESCRIPTION

The pkcs12 command allows PKCS#12 files (sometimes referred to as PFX files) to be created and parsed. PKCS#12 files are used by several programs including Netscape, MSIE and MS Outlook.

Options

There are a lot of options the meaning of some depends of whether a PKCS#12 file is being created or parsed. By default a PKCS#12 file is parsed. A PKCS#12 file can be created by using the -export option (see below).

Parsing Options

-help 

Print out a usage message.

-in filename 

specifies file name of the PKCS#12 file to be parsed. Standard input is used by default.

-out filename 

specifies the file name to write certificates and private keys to, standard output by default. They are all written in PEM format.

-passin arg 

specifies the PKCS#12 file (that is, input file) password source. For more information about the format of arg, see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in the openssl reference page.

-passout arg 

specifies the pass phrase source to encrypt any outputted private keys with. For more information about the format of arg, see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in the openssl reference page.

-password arg 

With -export, -password is equivalent to -passout. Otherwise, -password is equivalent to -passin.

-noout 

inhibits output of the keys and certificates to the output file version of the PKCS#12 file.

-clcerts 

only outputs client certificates (not CA certificates).

-cacerts 

only outputs CA certificates (not client certificates).

-nocerts 

does not output any certificates.

-nokeys 

does not output any private keys.

-info 

outputs additional information about the PKCS#12 file structure, algorithms used and iteration counts.

-des 

uses DES to encrypt private keys before outputting.

-des3 

uses triple DES to encrypt private keys before outputting, this is the default.

-idea 

uses IDEA to encrypt private keys before outputting.

-aes128 
-aes192 
-aes256 

use AES to encrypt private keys before outputting.

-aria128 
-aria192 
-aria256 

Use ARIA to encrypt private keys before outputting.

-camellia128 
-camellia192 
-camellia256 

use Camellia to encrypt private keys before outputting.

-nodes 

does not encrypt the private keys at all.

-nomacver 

does not attempt to verify the integrity MAC before reading the file.

-twopass 

prompts for separate integrity and encryption passwords: most software always assumes these are the same so this option will render such PKCS#12 files unreadable. Cannot be used in combination with the options -password, -passin (if importing) or -passout (if exporting).

File Creation Options

-export 

specifies that a PKCS#12 file will be created rather than parsed.

-out filename 

specifies file name to write the PKCS#12 file to. Standard output is used by default.

-in filename 

specifies the file name to read certificates and private keys from, standard input by default. They must all be in PEM format. The order doesn't matter but one private key and its corresponding certificate should be present. If additional certificates are present they will also be included in the PKCS#12 file.

-inkey file_or_id 

specifies the file to read private key from. If not present then a private key must be present in the input file. If no engine is used, the argument is taken as a file; if an engine is specified, the argument is given to the engine as a key identifier.

-name friendlyname 

specifies the "friendly name" for the certificate and private key. This name is typically displayed in list boxes by software importing the file.

-certfile filename 

specifies a file name to read additional certificates from.

-caname friendlyname 

specifies the "friendly name" for other certificates. This option may be used multiple times to specify names for all certificates in the order they appear. Netscape ignores friendly names on other certificates whereas MSIE displays them.

-pass arg 
-passout arg 

the PKCS#12 file (that is, output file) password source. For more information about the format of arg, see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in the openssl reference page.

-passin password 

specifies the pass phrase source to decrypt any input private keys with. For more information about the format of arg, see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in the openssl reference page.

-chain 

if this option is present then an attempt is made to include the entire certificate chain of the user certificate. The standard CA store is used for this search. If the search fails it is considered a fatal error.

-descert 

encrypts the certificate using triple DES, this may render the PKCS#12 file unreadable by some "export grade" software. By default the private key is encrypted using triple DES and the certificate using 40 bit RC2 unless RC2 is disabled in which case triple DES is used.

-keypbe alg 
-certpbe alg 

these options allow the algorithm used to encrypt the private key and certificates to be selected. Although any PKCS#5 v1.5 or PKCS#12 algorithm name can be used (see NOTES section for more information). If a cipher name (as output by the list-cipher-algorithms command is specified then it is used with PKCS#5 v2.0. For interoperability reasons it is advisable to only use PKCS#12 algorithms.

-keyex|-keysig 

specifies that the private key is to be used for key exchange or just signing. This option is only interpreted by MSIE and similar MS software. Normally "export grade" software will only allow 512 bit RSA keys to be used for encryption purposes but arbitrary length keys for signing. The -keysig option marks the key for signing only. Signing only keys can be used for S/MIME signing, authenticode (ActiveX control signing) and SSL client authentication, however due to a bug only MSIE 5.0 and later support the use of signing only keys for SSL client authentication.

-macalg digest 

specify the MAC digest algorithm. If not included them SHA1 will be used.

-nomaciter 
-noiter 

these options affect the iteration counts on the MAC and key algorithms. Unless you wish to produce files compatible with MSIE 4.0 you should leave these options alone.

To discourage attacks by using large dictionaries of common passwords the algorithm that derives keys from passwords can have an iteration count applied to it: this causes a certain part of the algorithm to be repeated and slows it down. The MAC is used to check the file integrity but since it will normally have the same password as the keys and certificates it could also be attacked. By default both MAC and encryption iteration counts are set to 2048, using these options the MAC and encryption iteration counts can be set to 1, since this reduces the file security you should not use these options unless you really have to. Most software supports both MAC and key iteration counts. MSIE 4.0 doesn't support MAC iteration counts so it needs the -nomaciter option.

-maciter 

is included for compatibility with previous versions, it used to be needed to use MAC iterations counts but they are now used by default.

-nomac 

don't attempt to provide the MAC integrity.

-rand file... 

specifies a file or files containing random data used to seed the random number generator. Multiple files can be specified separated by an OS-dependent character. The separator is ; for MS-Windows, , for OpenVMS, and : for all others.

-writerand file 

Writes random data to the specified file upon exit. This can be used with a subsequent -rand flag.

-CAfile file 

CA storage as a file.

-CApath dir 

CA storage as a directory. This directory must be a standard certificate directory: that is a hash of each subject name (using x509 -hash) should be linked to each certificate.

-no-CAfile 

Do not load the trusted CA certificates from the default file location.

-no-CApath 

Do not load the trusted CA certificates from the default directory location.

-CSP name 

write name as a Microsoft CSP name.


NOTES

Although there are a large number of options most of them are very rarely used. For PKCS#12 file parsing only -in and -out need to be used for PKCS#12 file creation -export and -name are also used.

If none of the -clcerts, -cacerts, or -nocerts options are present then all certificates will be output in the order they appear in the input PKCS#12 files. There is no guarantee that the first certificate present is the one corresponding to the private key. Certain software which requires a private key and certificate and assumes the first certificate in the file is the one corresponding to the private key: this may not always be the case. Using the -clcerts option will solve this problem by only outputting the certificate corresponding to the private key. If the CA certificates are required then they can be output to a separate file using the -nokeys -cacerts options to just output CA certificates.

The -keypbe and -certpbe algorithms allow the precise encryption algorithms for private keys and certificates to be specified. Normally the defaults are fine but occasionally software can't handle triple DES encrypted private keys, then the option -keypbe PBE-SHA1-RC2-40 can be used to reduce the private key encryption to 40 bit RC2. A complete description of all algorithms is contained in the pkcs8 reference page.

Prior 1.1 release passwords containing non-ASCII characters were encoded in non-compliant manner, which limited interoperability, in first hand with Windows. But switching to standard-compliant password encoding poses problem accessing old data protected with broken encoding. For this reason even legacy encodings is attempted when reading the data. If you use PKCS#12 files in production application you are advised to convert the data, because implemented heuristic approach is not MT-safe, its sole goal is to facilitate the data upgrade with this utility.


EXAMPLES

Parse a PKCS#12 file and output it to a file:

openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -out file.pem

Output only client certificates to a file:

openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -clcerts -out file.pem

Don't encrypt the private key:

openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -out file.pem -nodes
Print some info about a PKCS#12 file:

openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -info -noout

Create a PKCS#12 file:

openssl pkcs12 -export -in file.pem -out file.p12 -name "My Certificate"

Include some extra certificates:

openssl pkcs12 -export -in file.pem -out file.p12 -name "My Certificate" \
  -certfile othercerts.pem

COPYRIGHT

Copyright 2000-2019 The OpenSSL Project Authors. All Rights Reserved.

Licensed under the OpenSSL license (the "License"). You may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You can obtain a copy in the file LICENSE in the source distribution or here: OpenSSL.


AVAILABILITY

PTC MKS Toolkit for System Administrators
PTC MKS Toolkit for Developers
PTC MKS Toolkit for Interoperability
PTC MKS Toolkit for Professional Developers
PTC MKS Toolkit for Professional Developers 64-Bit Edition
PTC MKS Toolkit for Enterprise Developers
PTC MKS Toolkit for Enterprise Developers 64-Bit Edition


SEE ALSO

Commands:
openssl pkcs8


PTC MKS Toolkit 10.3 Documentation Build 39.